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Full text of "Geology and preliminary ore dressing studies of the Carolina barite belt"

CI 
3:57 



Nc ' ~ ry 

NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

AND DEVELOPMENT 

R. BRUCE ETHERIDGE, DIRECTOR 



DIVISION OF MINERAL RESOURCES 

Jasper L. Stuckey, State Geologist 



Bulletin Number 57 



GEOLOGY AND PRELIMINARY ORE DRESSING 
STUDIES OF THE CAROLINA BARITE BELT 



By 

E. C. VAN HORN 
J. R. LeGRAND and L. L. McMURRAY 



Prepared in cooperation with the Tennessee Valley Authority, the 
South Carolina Research, Planning and Development Board, 'and 
the North Carolina State College Minerals Research Laboratory 



RALEIGH 

1949 



NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

AND DEVELOPMENT 

R. BRUCE ETHERIDGE, DIRECTOR 



DIVISION OF MINERAL RESOURCES 

Jasper L Stuckey, State Geologist 



Bulletin Number 57 



GEOLOGY AND PRELIMINARY ORE DRESSING 
STUDIES OF THE CAROLINA BARITE BELT 



> 






By 

E. C. VAN HORN 
J. R. LeGRAND and L L. McMURRAY 



Prepared in cooperation with the Tennessee Valley Authority, the 
South Carolina Research, Planning and Development Board, and 
the North Carolina State College Minerals Research Laboratory 

RALEIGH 

1949 



MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF CONSERVATION 
AND DEVELOPMENT 

W. Kerr Scott, Chairman Raleigh 

J . L. Home Rocky Mount 

Charles S. Allen Durham 

Oscar P. Breece Fayette ville 

J. Wilbur Bunn Raleigh 

K. Clyde Council Wananish 

W. J. Damtoft Asheville 

Percy B. Ferebee Andrews 

George W. Gillette Wilmington 

A. H. Guion Charlotte 

W. Roy Hampton Plymouth 

R. W. Proctor Marion 

Eric Rodgers Scotland Neck 

Miles J. Smith Salisbury 

D. M. Stafford Pamona 

A. K. Winget Albemarle 

R. Bruce Etheridge, Director 



II 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

Raleigh, North Carolina 

March 7, 1949 

To His Excellency, Hon. W. Kerr Scott, Trovemor of North 
Carolina. 



Sir 



i 



I have the honor to submit herewith, as Bulletin 57, a report 
"Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing Studies of the Carolina 
Barite Belt." 

Barite is an important mineral in which there is an increasing 
interest. This report indicates that the barite deposits of the 
Carolina barite belt may contain reserves of economic impor- 
tance. It is hoped that the information presented may be of value 
to those interested in developing the deposits. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. Bruce Etheridge, 
Director. 



Ill 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 1 

Location 1 

Past and present investigations 2 

Geology 4 

Rock formations 4 

Bessemer granite 4 

Battleground schist 4 

Roan gneiss 5 

Diabase dikes 5 

Quartz-sericite schist 5 

Structure 6 

Barite Deposits 7 

Occurrence and origin 7 

History of development 9 

Economic possibilities 9 

Mines and prospects 10 

All Healing Springs 10 

Lawton Property 10 

Craig Property 12 

"Chimney" Place 12 

Wells Property 12 

Wyatt Mine 13 

Piedmont Springs Locality 13 

Kings Creek Locality 13 

John Childers Place 16 

Lavender Place 16 

Frank Earl Property 17 

Martin Place 17 

Sams Place 17 

Mt. Ararat Church Locality 17 

Laboratory investigations 18 

Identification and analysis of samples 18 

Concentration 19 

Conclusions 25 

Map : Carolina Barite Belt 



Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing 
Studies of the Carolina Barite Belt 



By E. C. Van Horn, 1 J. E. LeGrand, 2 and L. L. McMurray 3 

INTRODUCTION 

This investigation was a cooperative program of field geology 
and ore dressing studies set up for the summer of 1947 by the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development, 
the South Carolina Research, Planning and Development Board, 
and the Regional Minerals Section of the TVA Division of 
Chemical Engineering. The purposes of the program were to 
determine whether or not the barite deposits of the Carolina belt 
were of sufficient extent and quality to be of interest to a pro- 
ducing and marketing organization, and to determine what 
method or methods of beneficiation would be most satisfactory 
for producing marketable barite concentrates. 

All work was under the general direction of Dr. B. F. Buie of 
the South Carolina Research, Planning and Development Board, 
Dr. J. L. Stuckey, North Carolina State Geologist, and Mr. H. S. 
Rankin, Head, Regional Minerals Section, Division of Chemical 
Engineering, TVA. Messrs. T. G. Murdock, Assistant State 
Geologist of North Carolina, and C. E. Hunter, Geogolist, TVA, 
acted in advisory capacities. Earl C. Van Horn, Geologist, TVA, 
was in charge of work in the field, aided by student assistants, 
Richard Brasington and Henry Bell, III, of the University of 
South Carolina, and E. E. Jones of North Carolina State Col- 
lege. Beneficiation work at the North Carolina State College 
Minerals Research Laboratory was done by J. R. LeGrand, 
Mining Engineer, under the direction of L. L. McMurray, Chief 
Engineer. 

Location 

Barite deposits are situated along a narrow, irregular belt 
which begins on the northeast slope of Crowder's Mountain, four 

1 Geologist, Tennessee Valley Authority. 

2 Mining Engineer, Minerals Research Laboratory, North Carolina 
State College. 

31 Chief Engineer, Minerals Research Laboratory, North Carolina State 
College. 

1 



i 

2 Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing Studies 

miles east of the town of Kings Mountain, North Carolina, and 
extends southwestward through the Kings Mountain Parks and 
the Station of Kings Creek, South Carolina, to near the junction 
of South Carolina Highways No. 103 and No. 105, about five 
miles southeast of Gaifney, South Carolina. The belt of barite 
occurrences lies immediately east of the well known Carolina 
tin-spodumene belt, and includes part of Gaston and Cleveland 
Counties, North Carolina, and York and Cherokee Counties, 
South Carolina. 

Past and Present Investigations 

Pratt 4 visited the Crowders Mountain locality in 1901, noting 
briefly the general geology and describing the workings as they 
appeared at that time. Pratt described the barite as occurring 
in lenses, seams and "so-called veins" in "micaceous, argillaceous 
schist." He concluded that "the barytes very probably repre- 
sents the filling of fissures and crevices in the schist which (the 
fissures) may have been caused by the faulting and tearing apart 
of the schist. . . . These lenticular veins may be found to be many 
hundreds of feet in depth and then connected by a thin seam 
of barytes to another (lenticular vein)." Associated galena and 
sphalerite were observed but the presence of calcite was not 
mentioned. 

Probably the most complete study of the Carolina Barite Belt 
was made by Keith in conjunction with work on the Gaffney- 
Kings Mountain folio. 5 Keith reported that "The (barite) de- 
posits occur in white, bluish, or mottled quartz-sericite schist. 
The barite occurs in veins or elongated lenticular masses in- 
closed in the schist, generally about parallel with the planes of 
schistosity. The veins worked are generally two feet in width, 
but smaller veins and seams cut across the bedding in many 
places around the larger deposits. The veins contain scattered 
inclusions or sheets of wall rock ranging from a small fraction 
of an inch to several inches thick. . . . The veins are for the most 
part in the Battleground schist near the contact with the Bes- 
semer granite, but some are also found in schistose parts of the 
granite." Mention was not made of the possible origin of the 
barite. 



4 Pratt, J. H., The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1901: 
North Carolina Geol. and Econ. Survey, Econ. Paper No. 6, pp. 62-65, 1902. 

5 Keith, Arthur, U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas, Gaffney-Kings Mountain 
folio (No. 222), 1931. 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 3 

Keith's geologic map shows barite deposits in association with 
four separate formations: the Bessemer granite, a fine-grained 
muscovite biotite granite that has been strongly metamorphosed 
to sericite schist in places, the Battleground schist, a light to 
dark sericite schist having manganese schist and quartzite 
phases, the Roan gneiss, chiefly a hornblendic schist or gneiss, 
and a series of fine-grained diabase dikes. Stuckey investigated 
the origin of the Carolina barite, and after confirming previous 
description of the shape, extent, and attitude of the barite masses, 
he compared them with barite deposits in Virginia. 

Stuckey 6 concluded that "Mineralization took place along 
planes of cleavage through the agency of hot solutions of hypo- 
gene origin. . . . The position of the veins~with respect to the 
schistosity of the enclosing rocks makes it appear that they 
(barite veins) were formed after the last great period of meta- 
morphism which was probably in the late Paleozoic. Mineraliza- 
tion is thought to have been brought about by hot solutions 
which came up from below and found lines of ingress along 
the most prominent cleavage planes." 

Field work, done during the months of July and August, 194:7, 
consisted of geologic reconnaissance over an area bounded 
roughly by Shelby, Lincolnton, and Gastonia in North Carolina, 
and Clover, York, Pacolet, and Cowpens in South Carolina, and 
of more detailed examinations of some 400 barite occurrences 
in a belt 24 miles long and two miles wide. Reconnaissance 
was directed principally toward a search for barite occurrences 
outside previously known localities, and toward a delimiting 
of barite occurrences to a specific lithologic unit or series. The 
work on specific barite deposits involved studies of form, size, 
quality and lithology of the barite bodies, and collections of 
samples for use in the laboratory. Barite beneficiation studies 
were made at the North Carolina State College Minerals Re- 
search Laboratory at Asheville, North Carolina. This work 
included grinding and flotation batch tests on representative 
material from more than 2,000 pounds of field samples to deter- 
mine the effect of various types of grinds on barite liberation, 
the relative effectiveness of various flotation reagents, and the 
susceptibility of the ores to gravity concentration. All tests 
were controlled by chemical anatyses. 



6 Stuckey, J. L. and Davis, H. T., Barite Deposits of North Carolina 
Amer. Inst. Min. Met. Eng., Trans., vol. 115, 1935. 



i 

4 Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing Studies 

GEOLOGY 

Although the time available for areal geologic work on the 
present study did not permit a thorough evaluation of Keith's 
geologic mapping and interpretation, the general information 
set forth in the Gaffney-Kings Mountain folio 7 proved to be 
satisfactory as a base for additional work. Certain limitations 
were apparent from the beginning, principally in regard to 
structural details and to an indistinctness of formational con- 
tacts in the field resulting from gradation of lithology and meta- 
inorphism. It now seems probable that some of Keith's separate 
formations are related genetically. In the approach to an eval- 
uation of the barite deposits, however, Keith's geology is utilized 
with few qualifications. 

Rock Formations 

Bessemer Granite 

The Bessemer granite, lying east of the barite zone, is marked 
by distinctly metamorphic characteristics. In some places the 
rock has the appearance of a slightly schistose, medium-to- 
coarse-grained muscovite-biotite granite. More commonly it is 
a quartz-muscovite-biotite granite gneiss having irregular zones 
of fine-grained sericite schist and coarse-grained, dark, quartz- 
mica schist. It is possible that much of the formation repre- 
sents originally sedimentary rocks which were not digested by 
the invading granite mass. Small and large quartz veins are 
distributed throughout the formation, and aplite dikes are com- 
mon near the eastern limits. 

Battleground Schist 

The Battleground schist, which lies west of the barite zone, 
is principally sericite schist and mica schist with colors ranging 
from white through silver, bluish, and brownish to black. Also 
contained are quartzose and conglomerate beds, manganese 
schist, and certain schistose beds of angular fragments which 
Keith called volcanic tuff. Magnetite is an important constitu- 
ent of the Battleground schist, and specular hematite may be 
seen in places, especially at Spears Spring, 1.1 miles southeast of 
Kings Mountain Pinnacle. An unusual mineral occurrence in 



Keith, Arthur, Op. cit. 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 5 

the Battleground schist is in the barn lot of a house on the 
southeast side of a dirt road, 0.8 mile northeast of Mount Ararat 
Church and 6.2 miles ESE of Gaffney, South Carolina. In an 
outcropping quartz vain, about 15 feet wide and 40 feet long, 
aggregates of soft, blue pyrophyllite occur as pseudemorphs 
after kyanite, forming about 10 per cent of the vein material. 
This occurrence lies very near the barite zone. 

Roan Gneiss 

The Roan gneiss of Keith's geologic map is associated with 
the barite zone south of Kings Creek where, according to Keith, 
the gneiss is injected by the Bessemer granite. In the field it 
appears more as if the granite had been injected by the Roan 
gneiss, as narrow zones of fine-to-medium-grained hornblendic 
schist and feldspathic hornblende gneiss are surrounded by the 
more prolific granite gneiss and zericite schist of the Bessemer 
formation. Actually, hornblendic rocks have not been found 
nearer than about one-half mile from a barite occurrence, and it 
is doubtful that the two are related in any way since meta- 
morphic structures indicate that the barite is far younger than 
the hornblendic rocks. 

Diabase Dikes 

Diabase dikes, up to 20 feet thick, cut across all other forma- 
tions in the Gaffney-Kings Mountain area. These vertical dikes 
strike northwest, crossing at right angles the strike trend of 
older rocks. Probably they occur along fissure- joints which were 
opened and injected during the Triassic period. Mineralogically 
the rock seems predominantly olivine, but the texture is so fine 
that identification of other minerals is problematical. Keith 
lists labradorite, augite, olivine, magnetite, chlorite, and pyrite. s 
Contact metamorphism of adjacent rocks has not been noted, 
and the writer doubts that the diabase is related to the barite 
deposits. 

Quartz- Sericite Schist 

All known barite deposits of the Carolina Belt are associated 
with a more or less silicious sericite schist which occurs alternately 



Keith, Arthur, Op. cit. 



i 

6 Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing Studies 

on either side of Keith's mapped contact of the Bessemer granite 
and the Battleground schist. The sericite schist is light-colored 
and fine-to-medium grained. It ranges in outcrop width from a 
few feet to more than 1,100 feet, and is not present everywhere 
along the strike. An intense foliation characterizes the schist 
in all instances, and sharp contacts with other rock types are 
not seen. Common variations in lithology include dense silicic 
phases in the vicinity of the Lawton property, east of Kings 
Mountain, and light-green chlorite schist phases around Kings 
Creek, South Carolina. In addition, a dense, gray, calcareous 
schist or micaceous marble has been found on dumps of the main 
underground workings immediately behind the grinding plant 
at Kings Creek. It is reported that this rock, which contains 
many magnetite crystals, was encountered underground as a 
bedded formation, about 5 feet thick, within the sericite schist. 
The bed was said to have been discovered where a vein of barite 
ended abruptly. Similar rock types have not been reported in 
any of the other workings in the barite belt ; neither has the rock 
been seen in other dumps, or in place. 

In those localities where barite has been observed, the quartz- 
sericite schist exhibits characteristic "filled" appearance, similar 
to that of fine-grained migmatites, which is not apparent in 
other sericite schists of the Bessemer granite and the Battle- 
ground schist. This "filling" is caused by the presence of par- 
ticles or clusters of either barite or quartz, or a combination of 
both, and the condition has been of substantial assistance in 
recognizing the barite-bearing type of sericite schist. It should 
be emphasized that barite is contained in the schist only inter- 
mittently, as are varying, sometimes great, quantities of quartz. 
The quartz is most abundant in those localities where barite is 
not apparent. Other important accessory minerals in the seri- 
cite schist include feldspar, muscovite, biotite, chlorite, tourma- 
line, and magnetite. 

Structure 

Keith's folio 9 shows the structure of the area as a complex sys- 
tem of folds, usually overturned toward the northwest. Numer- 
ous thrust faults have been inferred by Keith in order to adjust 
mapped units to a formal time scale. Dips and strikes vary* 

9 Keith, Arthur, Op. Cit. 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 7 

widely from place to place in the area. In the northern portion, 
near Kings Mountain, the strike is nearly north-south and west- 
erly dips predominate, while in the southern portion, near GafF- 
ney, strikes are more northeast-southwest, and dips are generally 
southeast. The barite zone has an average strike and dip of 
N45°E, 60°$E. Actual bedding structures everywhere are sub- 
dued by a secondary foliation which constitutes a regional schis- 
tosity. Even the most quartzose rocks are affected and any de- 
gree of incompetence is emphasized. 

Between Crowders Mountain and Kings Creek, minor folds 
affect only slightly the strike trend of the barite zone from one 
individual deposit to another, but between Kings Creek and 
the Lavender property, south of Blacksburg, the barite-bearing 
sericite schist follows two broad folds which give an initial im- 
pression that the barite zone has been offset nearly three miles 
toward the northwest. Because of deceptive foliation, these 
broad folds are difficult to trace with any but the most detailed 
geologic inspection. 

Local structures of the barite-bearing schist are similar to 
those usually found in other metamorphic rocks of the southern 
Appalachians. Joint systems in the schist are of small apparent 
importance, since most of the stress has been taken up along 
planes of foliation. Small faults are not observed readily, but it 
is reported that faults were of importance in the Kings Creek 
mines where veins of barite commonly were offset from 2 feet to 
10 feet or more. Lineations other than slickensides are faint. 
Fold axes in barite workings have been measured occasionally, 
but plunges greater than 10 degrees were not found. At the 
Kings Creek mines, where exposures were the best, net plunges 
over a distance of several hundred feet usually were near zero. 

BARITE DEPOSITS 

Occurrence and Origin 

It has been pointed out that the barite occurs only in a zone 
of quartz-sericite schist which lies near the contact of Keith's 
Bessemer granite and Battleground schist. Within this zone the 
barite masses are sub-parallel to major foliation of the locality, 
although it is not unusual to see large veins cutting across all 
apparent foliation. 



8 Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing^ Studies 

Barite in the Carolina Belt has two forms, one always in asso- 
ciation with the other. That form which has received attention 
in the past is a vein type, either massive-granular or coarsely 
crystalline, appearing locally as a system of veins which over- 
lap and parallel one another en echelon along both strike and 
dip. Contacts between veins and wall rock are fairly distinct, 
although fragments of sericite schist are contained in the outer 
sections of veins. Zoning of mineral content or particle size has 
not been observed. Vein barite commonly is broken crosswise 
into blocks ranging from a few inches to the full thickness of 
the veins, but fractures similar to the foliation of the country 
rock are not present. 

Wall rock which contains vein barite also has small barite 
particles, or aggregates of particles, ranging in size from micro- 
scopic dimensions to an inch or more, disseminated throughout 
the rock and making up as much as 20 per cent of the mass;. 
It is believed that baritic portions of the schist are lenticular in 
shape, as are some barite veins, even though the barite content 
diminishes in directions away from vein concentrations. The 
disseminated form of barite has not been recognized fully in 
the past, although it is one of the most important features of 
the Carolina Barite Belt. 

Besides inclusions of sericite schist, the barite contains fine 
sericite and quartz. Other associated minerals are galena, spha-. 
lerite, and calcite in the Crowders Mountain locality, and sul- 
phides of iron and copper in the Kings Creek locality. The Lav- 
ender property, south of Blacksburg, shows abundant galena. 
Tourmaline, magnetite, and pale green chlorite have been found 
with barite all along the Carolina belt. 

The geology of the barite deposits of the Carolina belt is simi- 
lar to the geology of most other important mineral deposits of 
the southern Appalachian region. The barite probably is younger 
than the latest great period of dynamic metamorphism, and it 
appears to be controlled by fold axes and regional schistosity. It 
exhibits the same gradational contacts and has the same associa- 
tions of high or moderate temperature minerals as have most 
mineral deposits of the region. Core drill holes at Kings Creek 
have shown barite at depths of at least 250 feet in the same form 
as surface occurrences. Preliminar}^ studies of thin sections show 
that the barite replaces quartz and sericite, and that it also oc- 
curs as interstital fillings in the sericite schist. 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 9 

It seems probable that the barite is the result of hydrothermal 
replacement and emplacement, brought about through the action 
of ascending solutions at the close of the last great period of 
metamorphism. 

History of Development 

Barite deposits have been prospected and mined sporadically in 
the Kings Mountain-Gaffney area at least since the early 1880's, 
but production has been an insignificant part of the total United 
States production. An exact history of the area is not available 
at this time, but it is believed that the first actual production of 
barite in the area was from open pits in the Kings Creek deposits 
of South Carolina. Simultaneously, or at a slightly later date, 
open pit operations furnished barite from the Lawton property 
at Crowder's Mountain. By 1900, shaft work was being done at 
the Lawton property as small veins were worked at depths of 
80 feet or more. Around 1923-1924 the Bertha Mineral Company 
carried on development work consisting of deepening two shafts 
and driving a connecting drift. High mining cost and low value 
of the ore apparently were the factors which led to early aban- 
donment of the property. Prior to the later work on the Lawton 
property, The Cherokee Chemical Company began underground 
mining of barite at Kings Creek, South Carolina, producing 
ground barite at a mill constructed at the mine site. This prop- 
erty is now under the name of the Clinchfield Sand and Feldspar 
Company. During the past ten years, little barite has been 
produced from the Kings Creek mines, but the grinding plant 
has operated on barite imported from Tennessee. Indifferent 
prospecting has been attempted at scattered localities in the Caro- 
lina Barite Belt, mostly by individual land owners and tenants 
who wished to sell crude ore to the local mill, and attention was 
given only to small quantities of impure surface barite. 

Economic Possibilities 

Barite in the United States comes from Arkansas, Georgia, 
Missouri, and Tennessee, and from California, Nevada, North 
Carolina, and several other states. In 1946, the United States 
produced around 725,000 tons of barite, and imported some 
275,000 tons from Canada and Mexico. The normal price rancre 
was from $6.00 to $35.00 per short ton, including both crude and 
ground barite. 



10 Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing* Studies 

There can be little doubt that flotation concentration is the 
key to successful development of the Carolina barite, and the 
ore seems to be naturally adaptable to that sort of processing. 
Disseminated barite constitutes the base material, with a high- 
grading effect contributed by large and small barite veins. It 
is believed that the ore could be removed by quarrying or strip- 
ping and that selective mining could be done by site location 
rather than by a special handling of the ore. Consequently, core 
drill exploration and sampling of deposits are required before 
mining and milling programs can be planned. The feasibility of 
the fundamental technology of floating the barite is reasonably 
certain. It only remains to prove definite tonnage reserves (by 
systematic exploration and sampling) , to set up marketing 
arrangements and to make specific designs for a commercial 
plant. It is possible that an existing plant can be adapted to 
handle barite production. 

Mines and Prospects 

All Healing Springs — Barite appears in two small pits, 2,000 
feet apart, in the west bank of a black top road near the old 
settlement of All Healing Springs, 4.3 miles N88°E of Kings 
Mountain, North Carolina. The northernmost pit is 4,300 feet 
N20°E of Crowders Peak, and the southerly pit is 4,000 feet 
N31°E of Crowders Peak. These locations are shown in Keith's 
folio. 10 No new barite occurrences have been found near the 
locality, except for loose fragments which may have come from 
the existing pits, where veins up to 2 inches thick crop out in 
sericite schist. It would appear from the map as if the barite zone 
has a strike of about N20°W, but readings on the foliation aver- 
age N40°E. 

Lawton Property — Most of this property is owned in fee by 
the Bertha Mineral Company. It is located on the southeast side 
of Crowders Mountain, 4.3 miles ESE of Kings Mountain in 
Gaston County, North Carolina. The main barite zone is known 
to be 2,600 feet long, just crossing over the Bertha Mineral Com- 
pany property lines at each end. A single additional pit lies about 
800 feet farther east of north, so that the north and south ex- 
tremities of the total known zone are respectively about 3,500 
feet S33°E and 5,400 feet S70°E of Crowders Peak. This prop- 



10 



Keith, Arthur, Op. cit. 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 11 

erty is described in the reports of both Pratt 11 and Keith. 12 
The barite zone trends N1G°E and is fairly regular except at 
the north end, where either there are two barite horizons, about 
400 feet apart, or else a single horizon widens considerably. Here 
six pits show barite east of the main zone, about 950' feet north- 
east of the No. 1 shaft. 

Barite at the Lawton property first was found as surface 
float. Some 75 different surface pits were worked by hand, going 
down until ground water was encountered or until pit walls 
failed to hold without support. It is probable that the lengths of 
individual pits or trenches reflect the length of any single lentic- 
ular vein having a thickness as much as 4 inches. Pits show an 
en echelon pattern typical of barite lenses observed in other por- 
tions of the Carolina Belt. Later work involved the sinking of 
two shafts, 650 feet apart, to depths of about 200 feet, and the 
driving of a drift which followed a barite vein or series of veins 
until the two shafts were connected. It is reported that barite in 
the drift had an average thickness of 2 feet, and that the average 
BaS0 4 content of the barite was about 87 percent. 

All barite concentrates were prepared by hand cobbing the 
massive vein material. It is reported that attempts were made 
to jig and table the ore, but without success, and most of the 
barite seems to have gone on the dumps. It has been estimated 
roughly that an aggregate of the dumps totals 25,000 tons of. 
material containing 40 percent barite, all capable of being con- 
centrated by flotation to a good commercial barite. Much of the 
ore would consist of small fragments of vain barite mixed with 
sericite schist. Disseminated barite in the country rock appears 
to be sufficient to add materially to the grade of the ore. As- 
sociated minerals in the barite include magnetite, tourmaline, 
galena, sphalerite, sericite, chlorite, quartz, and pink and white 
calcite. Epidote also is present in more silicic phases of the seri- 
cite schist. In preparing a flotation concentrate, it is possible 
that by-products of sericite, galena, and sphalerite would have 
some value. 

The Lawton property requires a great deal of additional pros- 
pecting if the ore is considered for use in a flotation plant. 
Valuable information could be obtained by cross-cutting the seri- 
/ cite schist zone with a number of trenches in order to determine 



11 Pratt, J. H., Op. cit. 

12 Keith, Arthur, Op. cit. 



12 Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing' Studies 

the extent of baritic schist and the quantity of barite veins. Core 
drill exploration would be of much greater value, especially if 
care were used in taking sludge samples in the overburden and 
if the work were controlled by chemical analysis of the samples. 

Craig Property — This property is very nearly an extension of 
the Lawton property, being one-half mile farther south. It is 
about 7,500 feet due south of Crowders Peak, and just northeast 
of a dirt road which connects Mountain View (Phillipsburg) 
and Trinity Church. Six rather large pits and trenches have 
been dug in sericite schist along a strip 1,000 feet long and 200 
feet wide. The enclosing schist is baritic, and vein barite seems 
to be of good quality. The pits do not seem to be very deep since 
dump material does not appear in large quantity. It is entirely 
possible that deeper prospecting would show additional barite 
ore, possibly extending northward to the Lawton property and 
southward to the "Chimney" property. 

"Chimney" Place — Approximately 30 pits and trenches show 
barite for a strike length of about 1,200 feet and a width up to 
400 feet. In addition, two pits are situated 1,000 feet farther 
south, just across a small creek. The property is an extension 
of the Craig property, being about 2,000 feet farther south, and 
begins 1,500 feet south of the Mountain View road. Only the 
pits on the south side of South Crowders Creek are indicated on 
Keith's map. As in the deposits described above, rock outcrops 
do not show and information is available only from dumps and 
from the trends of older works. Most of the pits are less than 
10 feet deep, but there is a total of at least 1,000 tons of dump 
material which could be obtained easily for concentration. A 
great deal of quartz and sericite and very small amounts of 
galena may be seen in association with the ore. The quantity of 
disseminated barite in the sericite schist is not known. Initial 
prospecting by cross-cutting trenches would allow a more ac- 
curate evaluation of the deposits. 

Wells Property — For a distance of four miles southwest of the 
"Chimney" property, barite has not been observed until nearly 
at the North Carolina-South Carolina state line. Here a barite 
zone about 1,000 feet long and probably less than 100 feet wide 
is centered on latitude 81°10'N, 1,200 feet north of the state 
line and 3,000 feet inside Cleveland County from the Gaston 
County line. Twelve pits and trenches show at the present time, 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 13 

the deepest ones being about 10 feet deep. The amount of 
dump material is not large, indicating that extensive work has 
not been done in the past. This probably was the location that 
Keith intended to show as location 2 on his geologic map. 13 It 
is reported that several truck loads of hand cobbed barite were 
hauled to the Kings Creek, South Carolina plant. Accessory 
minerals other than quartz and sericite were not observed. 

Wyatt Mine — Is is reported that Mr. Emmet Wyatt, of Kings 
Creek, South Carolina, mined barite from this property on con- 
tract and supplied the Kings Creek mill with about two car- 
loads of hand cobbed ore. The property is situated in Kings 
Mountain State Park, York County, South Carolina, 1.6 miles 
S65°W from the Cleveland County-Gaston County corner on 
the North Carolina state line, and 3,800 feet due south of the 
North Carolina-South Carolina line. Barite was removed from 
five surface pits, but the largest production was from a shaft 
about 60 feet deep. Barite on the dumps is more silicious than 
usual, and the few available outcrops of sericite schist also have 
a high quartz content. 

Piedmont Springs Locality — Barite occurs intermittently for 
a distance of 1.3 miles along a strip three -fourths mile northwest 
of Piedmont Springs, in York and Cherokee Counties, South 
Carolina. Beginning at latitude 81°05'N, longitude 35°25'W, 
the strip extends nearly due east to the county line and then- 
turns NNE. All the shallow pits seem very old and are over- 
grown with trees and brush. The southeast end of the strip 
probably includes the Dan Sanders place which reportedly was 
prospected by the Cherokee Chemical Company. The dumps 
contain mostly fine-grained sericite schist, with very little barite 
showing either as vein or disseminated material. 

Kings Creek Locality — The most productive barite zone of the 
entire Carolina Barite Belt is at Kings Creek, Cherokee County, 
South Carolina. Pits, trenches, underground workings, 'and 
outcrops of vein barite and barite sericite schist are located at 
close intervals over an area 3,000 feet long and as much as 1,100 
feet wide. Specifically, it extends from the railroad siding of 
the Clinchfield Sand and Feldspar Company's barite grinding 
plant on the northwest side to 300 feet beyond the southeast end 
of the Kingsville and Marion Railroad trestle, southeast of 

13 Keith, Arthur, Op. cit. 



14 Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing Studies 

Kings Creek, and from 300 feet southwest of the large bend in 
South Carolina Highway No. 5, southwest of Kings Creek, to a 
line 1,100 feet northeast of the barite mill. One additional pros- 
pect, outside this area, lies 0.7 mile northeast of the grinding 
plant. The strike trend of the baritic sericite schist is N45°E. 

One reason for the extensive work on barite at Kings Creek is 
that overburden generally is not deep and barite crops out at 
the surface in many places. These conditions encouraged origi- 
nal surface mining and additional barite was discovered as the 
surface working became more numerous and were transformed 
to entries for underground mining. In the later stages of in- 
tensive development, about twenty core holes were drilled in 
search of larger veins. Most of these core holes were drilled on 
the up-dip side of the richer barite horizons, and were usually 
two shallow to be of much value. Core records have not been 
preserved, but it is reported that one hole intercepted a 2-foot 
barite vein at a depth of 250 feet. Parts of this core were ex- 
amined by the writer and found to be similar in all respects to 
surface barite. Cores showing disseminated barite in sericite 
schist were not available. 

The Kings Creek locality has more than 200 individual pros- 
pect and mine openings, parts or all of which are still accessible 
for inspection at the entries. Many of the openings are too small 
to have significance in regard to past production, although they 
are of value in appraising the extent of barite mineralization. 
Of these many openings, the bulk of the Kings Creek barite pro- 
duction in the past has come from five main groups. Except for 
scavanger work, none of the separate groups were in production 
simultaneously, but each was begun when the previous group 
had been abandoned. 

The Big Incline was the second largest producer and the first 
mine worked. It is situated immediately behind (southeast of) the 
grinding plant. The work started as a surface stripping opera- 
tion on a hill which sloped toward a small stream. It is reported 
that a sheet-like barite vein, from 2 to 6 feet thick, lay on the 
dip slope of the hill under 8 feet of overburden for a strike 
distance of more than 100 feet. After this surface barite had 
been removed, the small stream was diverted through a flume 
so that inclines could be started southeast along the dip of the 
^in. The underground work ultimately reached a depth of 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 15 

about 200 feet along a 30 degree slope, with lateral workings 
supported by ore pillars. All these openings are now flooded. 

A second group of workings, located about 1,000 feet north- 
east of the grinding plant, include a number of individual sur- 
face pits and inclined drifts over an area of about one acre. The 
barite occurred as veins from 4 inches to 4 feet thick, in several 
different horizons, with dips averaging less than 30 degrees 
toward the southeast. Aggregate production was the greatest of 
any of the five groups. 

The West Hill Mine is a combination open-cut and under- 
ground mine situated 700 feet southwest of the grinding plant. 
The general outline of the working is elliptical, with maximum 
dimensions 250 feet long by 90 feet wide. A series of barite 
veins were encountered, the main one being at least 8 feet thick. 
Average dip was nearly zero and the veins had a 10 degree 
plunge to the northeast. It is probable that the ore occurs on 
or near the crest of an anticline or on the bench of a monocline. 
Initial work seems to have been done in an open cut, and under- 
ground mining was done later when several entries were made 
into the side of the hill. Hand cobbed barite was delivered to 
the grinding plant by truck. 

The Old Highway Mine lies at the southwest end of the 
barite zone, southwest of the large curve on Highway No. 5, 
1 ,800 feet southwest of the grinding plant. A small incline leads 
into a low room where sheet mining has followed a 15 -inch 
barite vein over a width of about 35 feet and a length of prob- 
ably 150 feet. The vein, which has an average dip approaching 
zero, plunges 10-15 degrees northeast in the forepart of the mine 
but the plunge diminishes to near zero at the northeast end. At 
the southeast side of the underground working, the vein seems 
to begin dipping southeast, and an outcrop at the surface indi- 
cates a 30 degree dip within 15 feet of the mined portion. Wall 
rocks contain many small veins as well as disseminated barite. 

The most recent work at Kings Creek centered 800 feet slightly 
south of east from the grinding plant. Inclined drifts followed 
barite veins which were reported to be as much as 12 feet thick. 
All of these workings are now flooded and are not accessible 
for inspection. 

Reasons for the abandonment of each working are obscure. 
In some instances the mines were flooded and attempts were 
not made to resume operations. Work was halted in other places 



16 Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing Studies 

when the veins thinned out appreciably. The key to mine aban- 
donment possibly lies in the fact that mining has been done by 
individuals on contract, payments being made on a tonnage 
basis. Naturally the easiest mining was done first and a great 
deal of time was spent in reworking dump material. It seems 
that wide variations of grade were allowed, as the BaS0 4 con- 
tent of the ground barite ranged from 65 percent to 90 percent, 
but even this incentive was not enough to keep the mines going. 

Barite reserves at Kings Creek are more readily estimated 
than at any other locality in the Carolina Belt, but additional 
prospecting will have to be done before any degree of accuracy 
can be applied. Bough estimates indicate that the Kings Creek 
locality has at least 30,000 cubic yards of ore in easily accessible 
dumps, representing a BaS0 4 content of possibly 30,000 tons. 
Reserves in place should exceed 400,000 tons of ore containing 
a total of 33 percent BaS0 4 . These estimates take into con- 
sideration the disseminated barite contained in sericite schist 
wall rock. The above figures should be taken as indicative only. 
Possibly by-products from the Kings Creek ore would include 
sericite, galena, and quartz. 

The barite grinding plant at Kings Creek has a capacity of 
about 2 tons per hour. Primary crushing is done in a hand-fed 
jaw crusher, and is followed by secondary crushing in a single 
set of rolls. The barite passes through a direct oil-fired rotary 
dryer and is fed to a Raymond roll mill which is in closed 
circuit with an air separator. Bagging is done through an open 
tube which has a sheet cut-off. 

John Childers Place — Fragments of barite have been found 
in the residuum of a sericite schist on the west side of jBells 
Branch, 0.9 mile N80°E from New Hopewell Church and 1.0 
mile N50°E of Jefferson Mountain, Cherokee County, South 
Carolina, on the estate of the late John Childers. No signs of 
prospecting were observed. 

Lavender Place — Barite occurs on what might be called 
Ninety Nine Island Creek, in Cherokee County, South Carolina, 
1.1 miles N49° W of Ninety Nine Island School, 8.2 miles east 
of Gaffney, South Carolina. Mineral rights are under lease to 
Mr. C. W. Watkins, Route 5, Hendersonville, North Carolina. 
It is reported that about five cars of barite was removed from 
an inclined drift in the northeast bank of the creek. No other 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 17 

openings have been made at the locality. The mine dumps con- 
tain an estimated 250 tons of baritic rock, and the mine opening 
has been refilled with waste material, possibly during a period 
of hand-sorting from the dump. The barite is relatively free 
from quartz, but galena is present in quantities such that it 
might be a valuable by-product if the property is exploited in 
the future. 

Frank Earl Property — Mr. Frank Earl now owns and oc- 
cupies this property which lies immediately southwest of the 
Lavender property, on the northeast side of a paved road lead- 
ing to Ninety Nine Island Dam. Narrow trenches and inclined 
drifts have been opened along a zone of sericite schist which 
probably is less than 50 feet thick. The main barite vein ap- 
parently was about two feet thick. It is reported that this ma- 
terial was used in the glass industry, but there is no information 
as to the amount of barite produced. 

Martin Place — Fragments of barite were found near a three- 
foot pit on the Martin place, 1.3 miles west of Ninety Nine 
Island School. No other indications of barite appear in the 
vicinity. 

Sams Place — A string of eight small pits is located in the 
south side of London Creek, 2.8 miles east of Draytonville 
School. Outcrops indicate that the sericite schist is only a few 
feet thick and that it contains more disseminated quartz than 
barite. Vein type barite contains more quartz than at airy other 
locality observed in the Carolina Belt. All workings on the 
Sams place seem to have been made for prospecting alone, and 
it is doubtful that much barite has been shipped from the 
property. 

Mt. Ararat Church Locality — The southernmost barite occur- 
rence observed in the Carolina Belt is 50 feet north of South 
Carolina Highway No. 3, 0.7 mile west of Mt. Ararat Church, 
and 1.6 road miles southeast of Draytonville School. Blocks 
of rather pure barite may be found around a shallow depression 
in a pine thicket. It is reported that several carloads of barite 
were extracted from an open cut, but present appearances do 
not reflect an operation of that size. 

Her State Lfcrary 



18 Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressings Studies 

LABOKATORY INVESTIGATIONS 

The following laboratory report is an appraisal of the ore 
dressing aspects of barite ores occurring in the Carolina Barite 
Belt of North and South Carolina. It was prepared as a supple- 
ment to the field investigation, and as an aid in the evaluation 
of the deposits. 

Identification and Analysis of Samples 

Sample 

Number Location and Description 

254- 1 West Hill Mine, Kings Creek, South Carolina. Channel sample 
of main orebody. Vein barite more than three inches thick and 
badly stained material not included. Barite-quartz-sericite schist. 
Barite occurs in lens-shaped masses from upwards of three inches 
thick, grading down to very thin streaks. The barite is of high 
quality, free from contained rock, and predominatly light colored. 
Contains an estimated 45 percent barite. Quartz occurs in lenses 
similar to the barite. The schist is in bands surrounding the barite 
and quartz. 

254- 2 Same as Sample 254-1, except taken from badly stained area. 
Barite is iron stained. 

264 Predominantly sericite schist low in barite. Barite megascopically 

unobservable. Moderate amount of iron staining. 

286-12 Dump of Shaft No. 1, Lawton property. 

286-13 Composite from upper dumps NE of creek and SW of Shaft 

No. 1, Lawton property. 
286-14 Composite from intermediate dumps NE of creek and SW of 

Shaft No. 1, Lawton property. 
286-15 Composite from lower dumps NE of creek and SW of Shaft 

No. 1, Lawton property. 

286-16 Composite from dump of Shaft No. 2 and dumps immediately SW 

of creek, Lawton property. 
286-17 Composite from dumps on top of hill SW of creek, Lawton 

property. 
286-18 Dump of Old Highway Mine, Kings Creek, South Carolina. 
286-19 Dump of West Hill Mine, Kings Creek, South Carolina. 

Samples 286-12 through 286-19 varied from medium weathered and 
slightly stained to highly weathered and highly stained. 

Sample 

Number BaSO* SiO a Fe 2 3 ALOs R2O3 

254- 1 43.2 49.0 0.27 4.73 

254- 2 44.5 18.7 0.47 3.63 

264 5.5 71.1 1.4 

286-12 60.3 27.5 7.5 

286-13 37.8 41.5 14.6 

286-14 51.0 29.6 12.1 

286-15 58.6 30.0 7.8 

286-16 36.8 45.8 10.4 

286-17 23.5 47.7 18.7 

286-18 31.8 54.0 9.3 

286-19 30.8 55.9 8.6 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 19 

Con centeation 

A preliminary inspection indicated that flotation concentration 
appeared to be the onty concentration method applicable. From 
observing the ore and making rough separations of the lumps by 
specific gravity, it appeared that a possibility for coarse concen- 
tration existed to a limited extent. Roughly 15 percent to 20 
percent of the ore could be rejected as tails without appreciable 
loss of barite. An insufficient quantity of ore was available to 
make jigging or tabling tests to estimate the pre-flotation re- 
jection which could be made. 

On an ore which was prepared by mixing sample 254-1 and 
26-1 in a ratio of 3 to 1, there appeared a distinct possibility of 
rejecting up to 50 percent of the feed which would be low in 
barite. 

In order to prepare a high quality concentrate, flotation is 
required, probably even on jig concentrates, due to the lack of 
liberation at sizes above 10 mesh. 

Since samples 286-12 through 286-19 are dump samples, t he- 
results herein presented are indicative only to the recovery that 
could be expected when using barite from old dumps, overburden, 
or from highly weathered rock. In order to prevent excessive 
sliming, these samples were ground to a 150 mesh minimum size 
before flotation. 

Samples 286-12 through 286-17 were deslimed on 325 mesh 
between primary crushing and rod-milling. However, from ex- 
perience gained, it is believed that this is not necessary for the 
less weathered samples. In test No. 17 on sample 254-1 a pebble 
mill grind was used to avoid iron contamination in grinding. 
All other tests utilized a rod mill. 

Initial studies were made to determine the point of liberation 
and the effect of various grinds on the flotation results. Grinds 
with the following screen analysis were used in tests on samples 
254-1, 254-2, and 264. 



20 



Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing* Studies 



Minus 28 Mesh Grind 





Concentrate 


Middlings 


Tailings 


Screen 


Percent Weight 


Percent Weight 


Percent Weight 


+ 28 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


+ 60 


0.5 


0.8 


0.1 


+100 


10.7 


9.4 


6.3 


+ 200 


38.3 


20.8 


20.3 


+325 


13.7 


9.7 


21.3 


—325 


36.8 


59.3 


51.8 



Minus 150 Mesh Grind 



+ 150 

+ 200 
+325 
—325 



0.0 
14.7 
18.2 
67.1 



0.0 

6.7 
15.5 



0.0 

24.6 
30.0 

45.4 



+200 
+ 325 
—325 



97 Percent Minus 325 Mesh 



o.o 

1.3 

98.7 



0.0 
2.2 

97.8 



1.5 

4.5 
94.0 



The flotation results on Samples 254-1, 254-2, 3 to 1 mixture 
of 254-1 and 264, and samples 286-12 through. 286-19 are shown 
as f oIIoavs : 



Sample No. 254-1 Minus 28 Mesh Grind (Test No. 17) 

Feed: 600 gras — 8 Mesh ore ground 1 minute at 35 percent solids in 
pebble mill with 1.0 lb./T sodium meta-silicate. 

Procedure: Feed transferred direct to cell and conditioned 30 seconds 
at 20 percent solids with reagents (1) below. Floated 2 
minutes. Machine discharge conditioned 30 seconds with 
reagents (2) below and floated 3 minutes. Froth cleaned 
3 times with cleaner reagents (3) below. 



Reagents: (1) 

(2) 
(3) 

Results : 



lb./T 
lb./T 
lb./T 
lb./T 
lb./T 

Cleaner — 1.0 

cleaner. 



0.15 

0.17 

1.0 

0.77 

0.17 



Amyl Kanthate 

Aero-float 31 

Sodium meta-silicate (in grind). 

Oleic acid 

Pine oil 

lb./T Sodium meta-silicate 



Percent 
Weight 



Product 

FP-1 sulphides 6.5 

Barite cone 41.4 

Middlings 1, 2 & 3 .. 8.8 
Tailings 43.3 



Specific 
Gravity 



4.41 
3.19 

2.78 



Percent 
BaS04 



94.8 

33.3 

5.7 



Percent 
Fe203 



Percent 

BaSO* 

Recovery 



0.04 
0.24 



89.0 



in each 



Calculated 

Plant 
Recovery 



94.8 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 



21 



Sample No. 254-1 Minus 150 Mesh Grind (Test No. 22) 

Feed: 600 gms — 8 Mesh ore ground 10 minutes at 35 percent solids in 
rod mill with 1.0 lb./T sodium silicate. 

Procedure: As Test No. 17 except omitted sulphide float and used 
following reagents. Cleaned froth 2 times. 

Reagents: (2) 0.61 lb./T Oleic acid 
0.17 lb./T Pine oil 
1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate (in grind) 

Results : 

Percent Calculated 

Percent Percent BaSO* Plant 

Product Weight BaS04 Recovery Recovery 

Barite concentrate 45.2 96.1 91.7 94.7 

Middlings 1 & 2 26.0 5.8 

Tailings 28.8 9.0 

Sample No. 254-1 Minus 28 Mesh Grind (Test No. 25) 

Feed: As Test No. 22, except ground V/2 minutes in rod mill. 
Procedure: As Test No. 22, except used following reagents. 

Reagents: (1) 1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate (in grind) 

(2) 0.84 lb./T Oleic acid 

1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate 
0.17 lb./T Pine oil 

(3) 1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate in each cleaner. 

Results: 

Percent Calculated 
Percent Percent BaSO* Plant 

Product Weight BaSO* Recovery Recovery 

Barite concentrate 42.6 94.0 91.0 96.1 

Middlings 1 & 2 11.9 20.1 

Tailings 45.4 3.8 

Sample No. 254-2 Minus 150 Mesh Grind (Test No. 24) 
Feed: As Test No. 22 
Procedure: As Test No. 22, except used the following reagents. 

Reagents: (1) 1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate (in grind) 

(2) 0.77 lb./T Oleic acid 

1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate 
0.17 lb./T Pine oil 

(3) Cleaner — 1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate in each 
cleaner. 

Results: 

Percent Calculated 
Percent Percent BaSO* Plant 

Product Weight BaSO* Recovery Recovery 

Barite concentrate 44.4 95.7 94.8 9S.0 

Middlings 1 & 2 22.4 7.4 

Tailings 33.3 2.6 



22 



Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing Studies 



Samples No. 254-1 and No. 264 (3 to 1 mixture. Contains a! calculated 
34.2% BaSOO Minus 28 Mesh Grind (Test No. 29) 
Feed: As Test No. 25 

Procedure: As Test No. 22, except used following reagents. 

Reagents: (l) 1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate (in grind) 

(2) 0.61 lb./T Oleic acid 

1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate 

0.17 lb./T Pine oil 

(3) 1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate in each cleaner. 
Results : 

Percent Calculated 

Percent Percent BaSO* Plant 

Product Weight BaS04 Recovery Recovery 

Barite concentrate 35.9 94.3 88.6 96.0 

Middlings 1 & 2 9.6 30.9 

Tailings 54.5 2.9 

Samples No. 254-1 and No. 264 (3 to 1 mixture) Minus 28 Mesh Grind 
(Test No. 30) 

Feed: As Test No. 25 

Procedure: As Test No. 22, except for reagents listed below 

Reagents: (1) 1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate (in grind) 

(2) 0.46 lb./T Oleic acid 

1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate 

0.17 lb./T Pine oil 

(3) 1.0 lb./T Sodium meta-silicate in each cleaner. 
Results: 

Percent Calculated 

Percent Percent BaS04 Plant 

Product Weight BaS04 Recovery Recovery 

Barite concentrate 32.2 96.3 83.0 96.3 

Middlings 1 & 2 :.11.7 45.0 

Tailings 55.9 2.6 

One of the main objectives was to produce a product that 
would meet specifications for most of the commercial users. In 
this connection, tests were run on the various ores to reduce the 
iron content of the concentrate as much as possible. 

The following results were obtained : 

Percent 
Type Type Fe203 

Test No. Sample Iron Removal Grind Concentrate 

17 254-1 Sulphide float Pebble mill 0.04 

27 254-1 None Pebble mill 0.08 

28 254-2 None Pebble mill 0.19 

29 Mixed 254-1 & None Rod mill 0.10 

264 



Samples 286-12 through 286-19 

The test procedure for these samples differs from the above 
only in samples 286-12 through 286-17 were deslimed on 325 mesh 
before rod-milling, and the minimum rod mill grind was 150 
mesh. Samples 286-18 and 286-19 were not deslimed before rod- 
milling. 



of the Carolina Barite Belt 



23 



The slime loss and percent BaS0 4 loss in the slimes for samples 
286-12 through 286-17 are given below : 



Sample Number 
286-12 
286-13 
286-14 
286-15 
286-16 
286-17 



Sample 286-12 

Test No. 4 

Test No. 6 

Test No. 7 

Sample 286-13 

Test No. 8 

Test No. 9 

Test No. 10 

Sample 286-14 

Test No. 12 

Test No. 13 

Test No. 14 

Sample 286-15 
Test No. 15 



Percent— 325 
slime 

12.5 
15.8 
24.5 
18.0 
17.1 
24.5 



Mesh of Percent 

Product Grind Weight 

Concentrate .... 20 53.2 

Middlings 6.8 

Tailings 25.8 

Slime 14.2 

Concentrate .... 65 56.4 

Middlings 3.5 

Tailings • 25.8 

Slime 14.3 

Concentrate ....150 54.1 

Middlings 4.3 

Tailings 26.8 

Slime 14.8 

Concentrate .... 20 29.9 

Middlings 8.6 

Tailings 40.6 

Slime 20.9 

Concentrate .... 65 30.2 

Middlings 9.1 

Tailings 38.9 

Slime 21.8 

Concentrate ....150 34.4 

Middlings 7.1 

Tailings 40.7 

Slime 18.5 

Concentrate .... 20 45.1 

Middlings 2.5 

Tailings 23.3 

Slime 30.1 

Concentrate .... 65 38.5 

Middlings 6.2 

Tailings 25.6 

Slime 29.7 

Concentrate ....150 44.7 

Middlings 3.7 

Tailings 24.2 

Slime 17.4 

Concentrate .... 20 53.6 

Middlings 2.5 

Tailings 24.4 

Slime 19.5 



Total percent BaSO* 
lost in slime 

3.3 

5.8 
11.0 

8.6 

8.1 
10.6 



Percent 
BaSO* 

97.4 

45.1 

5.9 

16.2 

~98.6 

31.7 

3.6 

16.2 

97.9 

31.6 

3.9 

16.2 

98.4 

68.5 

2.8 

14.0 

99.0 

74.1 

3.3 

14.0 

98.3 

24.0 

3.5 

14.0 

98.6 

47.9 

4.3 

22.9 

99.4 

74.3 

6.9 

22.9 

99.1 

45.5 

5.9 

22.9 

98.2 

60.9 

2.7 

28.1 



Percent 
Recovery 

85.8 



92.1 



87.9 



78.0 



79.6 



89.4 



89.9 



75.5 



86.9 



89.9 



Calculated 

Plant 
Recovery 
Percent 

88.9 



93.2 



90.5 



83.9 



86.3 



91.1 



95.5 



84.9 



90.8 



92.5 



24 



Geology and Preliminary Ore Dressing Studies 



Test No. 16 



Test No. 17 

Sample 286-16 

Test No. 18 



Test No. 19A 



Test No. 20 

Sample 286-17 

Test No. 21 



Test No. 22 

Test No. 23 

Sample 286-18 

Test No. 24 

Test No. 25A 

Test No. 26 

Sample 286-19 

Test No. 27 

Test No. 28A 
Test No. 29 



Mesh of 
Product Grind 

Concentrate ... . 65 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Slime 

Concentrate ....150.... 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Slime 

Concentrate .... 20 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Slime 

Concentrate .... 65 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Slime 

Concentrate ....150 . 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Slime 

Concentrate .... 20 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Slime 

Concentrate .... 65 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Slime 

Concentrate ....150 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Slime 

Concentrate .... 20 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Concentrate .... 65 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Concentrate ....150 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Concentrate .... 20 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Concentrate .... 65 

Middlings 

Tailings 

Concentrate ....150 

Middlings 

Tailings 



'ercent 
Veight 


Percent 
BaSO* 


Percent 
Recovery 


Calculated: 

Plant 
Recovery- 
Percent 


52.8 


98.9 


88.8 


91.8 


2.0 


45.4 






25.2 


2.8 






20.0 


28.1 






51.9 


98.4 


86.9 


89.7 


3.9 


43.4 






24.8 


3.8 






19.4 








29.3 


95.9 


76.2 


91.9 


8.4 


68.9 






47.7 


4.6 






14.6 


17.4 






34.1 


95.2 


88.6 


92.1 


4.9 


28.5 






46.6 


2.1 






14.4 


17.4 






32.2 


96.8 


84.7 


92.0 


6.8 


40.7 






47.8 


2.7 






13.2 


17.4 






22.6 


95.9 


88.1 


89.0 


5.4 


37.4 






48.7 


1.7 






23.3 


10.1 






24.9 


95.6 


83.0 


88.0 


5.4 


37.8 






48.9 


2.0 






20.8 


10.1 






23.1 


97.0 


82.1 


87.9 


6.8 


23.6 






49.3 


2.4 






20.8 


10.1 






30.4 


94.4 


90.1 


92.8 


4.2 


20.7 






65.4 


3.5 






28.3 


97.6 


86.9 


93.7 


7.9 


28.9 






63.8 


3.6 






28.9 


97.8 


88.9 


95.0 


7.8 


27.6 






63.3 


2.7 






30.1 


94.8 


87.1 


95.9 


7.6 


39.4 






62.3 


2.2 






30.4 


97.8 


90.8 


94.5 


8.0 


14.9 






61.6 


2.9 






29.5 


95.2 


90.4 


93.0 


6.5 


14.6 






-4.0 


3.3 







of the Carolina Barite Belt 25 

CONCLUSIONS 

The laboratory tests indicate that the barite is essentially freed 
from the gangue minerals at a relatively coarse size, roughly 
minus 20 mesh for flotation separation. However, since the ore is 
readily ground, and most trades specify a much finer mesh prod- 
uct, it would seem economical to make this size reduction before 
flotation, thereby confining the grinding to one unit and taking 
advantage of the finer size in flotation separation. 

Concentrates of a good white color were made from some of the 
less stained ores, but other concentrates contained varying 
amount of iron stain. It would be necessary to leach the concen- 
trates from the stained ores to meet the more rigid specifications 
of some trades. The expected plant recovery can be said to be 
above 90 percent by flotation. Iron analysis as low as 0.04 per- 
cent Fe 2 3 has been obtained by grinding the ore in a pebble 
mill to avoid iron contamination. 

The feasibility of the fundamental technology of concentra- 
tion of the disseminated barite by flotation is reasonably certain. 
Before mining and milling progress can be planned core drill- 
ing exploration and additional sampling are required. It was 
not the purpose of the present investigation to prove adequate 
tonnage for commercial development, but to point the way for 
further investigations which may lead to economic utilization 
of the deposits. It is believed that the ore could be removed by 
quarrying or stripping and selective mining could be done by 
site location rather than by special handling of the ore. 




w-J-V-r— 


1 V--1 


°™ % X^ 






i y - s c """. 




LOCATION MAP 

o n m 


Scale in Miles 



Itleground Schist - Bessemer Granite 
Contact from Arthur Keith, USGS (olio 

No 222 (See text). 



MINES AND PROSPECTS 

1 All Healing Springs Locality 

2 Lawton Property 

3 Craig Property 

4 "Chimney"' Place 

5 Wells Property 

6 Wyatt M.ne 

7 Piedmont Springs Locality 

8 Kings Creek Locality 

9 John Childers Place 
tO Lavender Place and Frank tarl Property 

11 Martin Place 

12 Sams Place 

13 Mt Ararat Church Locality 



Feb28'64 SI 





DATE DUE 




MAY ^5 


19^ 








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CAYLORO 






PRINTED IN U.S.A.